- Towards a complete cycle of knowledge. Based on feedback from real incidents and from sexercises testing them (evaluators, assessors, statistics…) adjust SOPs, doctrine and pre-plans, and identify main gaps to focus efforts in training, procedures, personnel and equipment.
- Study and learn also from incidents in other times and places, from research, from private enterprises….
- Optimize lessons learned (=implemented) processes inside the organization and between organizations. Look for specialists in those areas.
- Widen the focus of learning, involving situation awareness at all levels, and specially prevention and self-protection. Focus on rapid recognition of the scenario; on anticipation of behavior of the fire/water/chemical/radiation; on anticipation of opportunities and risks.
- Combine experts and specialist who accumulate knowledge, with an increase in knowledge and skills of firefighters, with involvement of stakeholders in prevention visits and exercises.
#organizationallearning #knowkedg=responsibility #disseminatedexpertise #descapitalization #bestpractices #trainedevaluators #EuropeanTrainersGuides #SpecificOperationalGuides #cost-efficienttrainings #learningoutcomes #science-policy-practitionner-interphase
(company, project, organization)
|FORETRESS project (Foresight Tools for Responding to cascading effects in a crisis)||https://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/185488_en.html||a) foresight tool to assist decision-makers in understanding the potential effects of their decisions in training environments
b) decision support tool that is user-friendly enough to be employed during a crisis to assist real-time decision making
|CRISMA project (Modelling crisis management for improved action and preparedness)||http://www.crismaproject.eu/index.htm||The CRISMA project developed a simulation-based decision support system, for modelling crisis management, improved action and preparedness. The CRISMA System facilitates simulation and modelling of realistic crisis scenarios, possible response actions, and the impacts of crisis depending on both the external factors driving the crisis development and the various actions of the crisis management team.|
|E-Government Challenge in Disaster Evacuation Response||Chatfield, Akemi; Wamba, Samuel Fosso; Tatano, Hirokazu (2010) Proceedings of the Thirty-First Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Vol Vii: Software Technology Track, 1772||While geographic information systems (GIS) can provide information on the static locations of critical infrastructure and evacuation routes, they do not provide the dynamically changing locations of things and people on the move. In contrast, radio frequency identification (RFID) wireless network technology can automatically identify and track the movement of assets (le, fire engines, ambulances, and rescue workers) and vulnerable citizens on the move (i.e. the elderly and the disabled), and hence providing local governments and communities with real-time information and enhanced decision-making capabilities, during chaotic disaster response operations (i e., evacuation). Although the potential high impact and strategic value of integrating RFID into e-government development and government’s comprehensive natural disaster management policy for improved preparedness. response, recovery, and mitigation, very little has been written in the e-government literature regarding the adoption, use, and impact of RFID in building safe and secure local communities for citizens and businesses This position paper, which is based on a review of the literature and a field case study, intends to contribute to the definition of the e-government research priorities needed to build regional disaster preparedness, as an integral part of e-government development policy|
|Crisis Management Training||Hvannberg, Ebba Thora; Rudinsky, Jan (2011) Semantic Web – Iswc 2014, Pt Ii, 6768, 225–234||Crises occur seldom, but when they occur they have high impact on the enclosing organization and its stakeholders. Examples are plane crashes, train incidents and bomb threats, but the types of crises are virtually endless. We report on research of early phases of the development of a crisis management training simulator, with the goal of understanding different representations and transitions between steps of a development process. The focus of the research study was on how the different representations did align with a given process model and how these representations lent themselves to a consolidation activity. The results were that consolidation across data sources starts early during the understanding phase and that stakeholders like to validate abstract models. The consolidated conceptual models mostly addressed work and strategies. No formal attempt was to consolidate across management and organization structures.|
|25 Years of MCDA in nuclear emergency management||Papamichail, K. Nadia; French, Simon (2013) Ima Journal of Management Mathematics, 24(4), 481–503||Radiation accidents such as those at Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and, more recently, Fukushima have emphasized the need for supporting all phases of emergency management from the early phases in which a threat is detected to years and decades after the accident. Several decision-aiding tools have been developed to prevent and mitigate the effects of a radiation accident. This work reviews a range of mathematical models, computing tools and, particularly, multi-criteria decision-making techniques that have been applied in the last 25 years to help politicians, health officials, local authority representatives and emergency planning officers devise better countermeasure strategies in the event of a radiation accident. The paper discusses all phases of a nuclear emergency as well as emergency training and planning. It highlights what has been achieved in the application of multi-criteria decision analysis, mainly through initiatives such as the EU-funded real-time online decision support projects. It examines how such tools that have been developed fit into the formulation, evaluation and appraisal stages of the emergency management process and discusses the complex socio-technical issues that arise from radiation accidents.|
|Analysis of large fires in European Mediterranean landscapes||San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus; Manuel Moreno, Jose; Camia, Andrea (2013) Forest Ecology and Management, 294, 11–22||Extreme fire events, also referred to as “megafires,” are not uncommon events on a global scale; they tend to happen a steady frequency in different parts of the world, although, at a local or regional scale, they constitute unique and severe fire episodes. Even if there is not a complete agreement on the term, megafires often refers to those fire events that cause catastrophic damages in terms of human casualties, economic losses, or both. In this article we analyze some of the most damaging fire episodes in Europe in the last decades. Our analysis relates the events to existing conditions in terms of number of fires and burnt areas in the countries and regions where they occurred, showing that these large fire episodes do not follow the general trend of those variables and constitute outstanding critical events. Megafires are characterized on the basis of the meteorological and fire danger conditions prior to the event and those under which they develop. Impact is assessed in terms of total burnt area, estimates of economic losses, if available, and number of human casualties caused by the megafire event. We analyze fire-fighting means available for the extinction of each megafire, as reported in the annual reports of the European Commission, to determine if fire spread might have been related to lack of available means for initial control and extinction. All countries where the reported megafires took place are in fire prone areas where active fire campaigns take place every year. Our results determine that megafires are critical events that stand out with respect to the average conditions in the respective countries; in all cases, the impact of the fires set a record damage in the country or region where the megafire event took place. It is shown that, in the cases under study, megafires were driven by critical weather conditions that lead to a concentration of numerous large fires in time and space (fire clusters). It is shown that these megafire events occurred independently of the large expenditures in forest fire fighting means and increased preparedness in the countries where they took place. The simultaneity in fire ignitions and the rapid fire spread prevented efficient initial fire attacks. Therefore, megafires occur independently of the available fire means in the countries and are set under control only when the weather conditions improve and facilitate fire fighting. Our analysis supports a series of recommendations that are seek to promote fire-prevention oriented forest management and increase awareness on potential extreme fire events to prevent the occurrence of megafires in Mediterranean regions. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.|
|EU Efforts in Managing CBRN Terror Attacks||Steinhausler, Friedrich (2015) Nuclear Threats and Security Challenges, 113–122||The international security expert community foresees a growing probability for terrorist attacks using chemical (C), biological (B), radiological (R), and nuclear (N) material. Despite the high-impact such an event would have on the targeted society, the low probability of its occurrence reduces the willingness in some European Union (EU) Member States to invest in an increased level of CBRN preparedness beyond the absolute minimum. The European Commission has responded by allocating (sic) 1,350 million for security research for the period 2007-2013, partly also for countering CBRN-related threats. This paper reports on: (1) Results of a comprehensive gap analysis among 80 EU first responder organizations (police, fire fighters, emergency medical services) in 25 EU Member States concerning the management of a mega-crisis, inter alia also concerning CBRN; (2) Analysis of major CBRN counterterrorism research achievements in the EU.|